[i]One of the invisible challenges in the way of society’s improvements is the crash between modernization and radicalization.
People in society with traditional ideas and thoughts don’t want to accept the improvement of new and modern world. Moderation is one the factor which causes business to improve in a society. People welcome the new and modern style of cloths, house equipment, new style of houses, new and improved technology, modern facilities… and this causes the economy and business to be run, but people with traditional and old ideas and thoughts, encourage others not to buy modern goods. People with traditional and old ideas and thoughts think the modern goods, faculties, equipments, modern technology… came to give their convenient.
Dr. Masoud Juya
Afghanistan’s name is often associated with war and violence in media. What is known as religious thinking in the country is assumed to be extensively linked to the promotion of extremism. However, this way of thinking is now being criticized. Interestingly, such criticism is being voiced by one of the country’s experts in religion who, in addition to educating in scholastic religion, has specialized in theology as well as has taught for years at universities.
In my latest book, The Quest for Meaning, my objective was to develop a philosophy of pluralism, one that allows us to step back from the narrow window of our own limited viewpoint and plunge into notions, concepts and questions, to open ourselves to the deep study of what the world’s philosophies, spiritual traditions and religions have told us down through history.
This chapter originally appeared in a two-part article published in Iran in 2003. In the first part of the article, the author surveys six areas of conflict between historical Islam and human rights norms: (1) inequality between Muslims and non-Muslims, (2) inequality between men and women, (3) inequality between slaves and free human beings, (4) inequality between commoners and jurists in public affairs, (5) freedom of conscience and religion versus punishments for apostasy, and (6) extra-judicial punishments,